Don't forget the two foot rule when pruning the spring flush of new growth, . The photos below show the before and after view of the same terminal shoot pictured above. Notice that I pruned off all lateral shoots within the top 2 feet of the terminal.
I also make directive pruning cuts the the tree's lateral shoots. During the early spring flush of growth, the terminals of lateral branches will sprout several new shoots. Remove any new shoots that point upward.
When new growth on lateral branches has reached 2 feet in length tip prune the shoot to a bud that is pointing downward (photo above, right). Tip pruning lateral branches helps to change the tree limb's focus from shoot extension to radial wood growth (the limbs get thicker). Tipping also promotes dormant buds on older wood to break (photo above, right), ultimately leading to a foliage dense canopy.
The next post in the training young trees series is The problem of stalked buds