In looking for cold injury, I selected both shoots that produced pecans last fall (i.e. fruiting shoots) and shoots that produced only leaves in 2013 (i.e. vegetative shoots). Using my knife, I peeled back an area of bark on each shoot to check for internal browning in the bark and cambium (indications of cold injury).
At -12 F both Pawnee shoots showed signs of internal browning. The vegetative shoot had only very slight discoloration while the browning observed within the fruiting shoot was intense.
From this year's observations and observations we've made following previous winters, it also looks like Pawnee usually develops cold injury problems when temperatures drop below -10 F. In addition, it is clear that the stress of nut production can reduce the cold hardiness of Pawnee shoots helping to intensify alternate bearing .