|Mohawk pecans, 2014|
At one time, the Success cultivar was the most popular cultivar grown in the Southeastern US. Success originated as a seedling tree planted in 1875 on a farm near Ocean Springs, MS. This cultivar produces large thin-shelled nuts but as the tree matures, nut production becomes erratic and kernel quality suffers terribly during "on" years. As plantings of Success increased across the Southeast, this cultivar became susceptible to pecan scab by 1931.
Mahan is another cultivar that can trace its origins back to a Mississippi seedling pecan orchard. The tree originated from a seed planted in 1910 near Kosclusko, MS and was named after the nurseryman that first propagated the cultivar. Mahan is known for its very large nut size and long pointed nut shape. However, Mahan is now better known as a cultivar that never fully fills the inside of that large shell with kernel. Mahan is severely alternate bearing and often suffers cold damage following a heavy crop year.
Mohawk is also similar to Mahan in terms of susceptibility to cold injury. The vast majority of Mohawk trees that once grew on the research station were removed after winter cold killed trees to the ground. This type of extreme cold injury always occurred following a heavy crop year.
As we grow and evaluate new cultivars, I always keep the story of Mohawk in the back of my mind. What may look like an outstanding new cultivar when a tree is young may turn out to be a real dud when the tree reaches maturity. The history of pecan cultivar development is littered with examples of pecans that fall apart at tree maturity. I'll name a few just off the top of my head: Shoshoni, Chickasaw, Creek, Dooley, Giles, Maramec, and Mohawk.